The phylogeny of the superfamily Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) has been poorly understood owing to limited taxon sampling and discordance between different genes. We present a nine-gene dataset across 15 chirostyloids, including all known yeti crabs (Kiwaidae), to improve the resolution of phylogenetic affinities within and between the different families, and to date key divergences using fossil calibrations. This study supports the monophyly of Chirostyloidea and, within this, a basal split between Eumunididae and a Kiwaidae–Chirostylidae clade. All three families originated in the Mid-Cretaceous, but extant kiwaids and most chirostylids radiated from the Eocene onwards. Within Kiwaidae, the basal split between the seep-endemic Kiwa puravida and a vent clade comprising Kiwa hirsuta and Kiwa spp. found on the East Scotia and Southwest Indian ridges is compatible with a hypothesized seep-to-vent evolutionary trajectory. A divergence date estimate of 13.4–25.9 Ma between the Pacific and non-Pacific lineages is consistent with Kiwaidae spreading into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean via the newly opened Drake Passage. The recent radiation of Kiwaidae adds to the list of chemosynthetic fauna that appear to have diversified after the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum, a period of possibly widespread anoxia/dysoxia in deep-sea basins.
View post tag: Navy View post tag: contract View post tag: Naval USA: Raytheon Gets USD 18.34 Million MK15 Phalanx Close-In-Weapon System Contract July 22, 2011 View post tag: MK15 View post tag: Close-In-Weapon View post tag: USD View post tag: News by topic View post tag: gets View post tag: system View post tag: 18.34 Back to overview,Home naval-today USA: Raytheon Gets USD 18.34 Million MK15 Phalanx Close-In-Weapon System Contract View post tag: Raytheon Raytheon Co., Tucson, Ariz., is being awarded an $18,346,000 modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-07-C-5437) for engineering and technical services in support of the MK15 Phalanx Close-In-Weapon System. The Phalanx Close-In Weapon System is a fast reaction terminal defense against low- and high-flying, high-speed maneuvering anti-ship missile threats that have penetrated all other ships’ defenses. The Phalanx Close-In Weapon System is an integral element of the fleet defense in-depth concept and the Ship Self-Defense Program. Operating either autonomously or integrated with a combat system, it is an automatic terminal defense weapon system designed to detect, track, engage, and destroy anti-ship missile threats penetrating other defense envelopes. The Phalanx Close-In Weapon Systems are installed on approximately 187 Navy ships and used by more than 20 foreign militaries. This modification will be incrementally funded in the amount of $11,625,546 at time of award. After award of this modification, the total estimated contract value will be $197,548,604. This contract combines purchases for the United States government (82 percent), and the governments of Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and Taiwan (18 percent combined) under the Foreign Military Sales Program.Work will be performed in Tucson, Ariz., and is expected to be completed by April 2012. Contract funds in the amount of $1,547,225 will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity.[mappress]Source: defense, July 22, 2011; View post tag: million Equipment & technology View post tag: Phalanx Share this article