Ontarians were shocked to hear that Ontario’s largest show organizers, Equestrian Management Group (EMG), had sold its assets to rival show organizers Angelstone Management. EMG hosts 14 gold shows at Caledon Equestrian Park (CEP), and the group has been the backbone of competition in Ontario for more than 30 years. Angelstone Tournaments first started hosting events at their Rockwood location in 2009 and now has six gold dates on the schedule. The two organizers have had a healthy rivalry from the outset which only added to the intrigue of the announcement.Angelstone’s CEO, Keean White, is a serial entrepreneur who has continually created unique and entertaining events which feature show jumping in a fresh light. He was the mastermind behind the 2010 Akon concert in Wellington, Florida that was prefaced by a $25,000 Puissance which sold 7,000 tickets. At home, his shows offer Circuit Champions, Leading Trainer Awards, University Scholarships, and offer special classes that target kids and young horses. In addition, Angelstone’s famous Saturday Night Lights Grand Prixes attract large community crowds and have culminated in some epic after parties. Just last year he announced the launch of the Major League Show Jumping series, a 5* Show Jumping tour, with stops in Canada, USA and Mexico.All this innovation, however, has come at a price.Angelstone originally launched with the tagline “by horse people for horse people” and pledged to offer a more affordable alternative to the shows hosted at EMG. “I wanted to run a horse show, because the quality of shows in Ontario is very low,” he said a 2010 article published in Horse Sport. “They lack quality by means of poor footing, poor stabling and poor quality of jumps. On top of that, the shows are very expensive.”At the outset, Angelstone events were a less expensive alternative and charged just $25 per class with no other fees. “Our show is financed by our corporate sponsors, not the exhibitors,” he insisted.Fast forward 10 years, however, and the costs have changed dramatically with Angelstone similar to EMG. It is these rising costs that have some concerned about the new monopoly of southern-Ontario that Angelstone has created.White is aware of this criticism and points to the affordable Silver Series that he has created. Introduced in 2019, the series has grown to six events in 2021 for which 600 season passes sold out in 36 hours last fall. For $949, the pass gives participants access to five shows and includes a stall at each event, all rings open for schooling, and the option to compete in any of the classes offered.He also notes that the new structure with two venues offers savings that will be passed on to competitors at the gold level.“There are a lot of synergies by running both venues. It actually lowers our costs to run each event and there is some significant staffing and supplier synergies,” he said. “We are also going to announce a Gold Pass which will create an opportunity where for one low monthly price you can show at any gold show between the two venues all year. Show in whatever you want, get your stall, the office fee is included, and the schooling fee is included. It works out that every 5th show is free – so we are lowering cost by about 20% by operating both venues. People are going to see a significant cost savings which is one of the benefits. We are going to create more opportunities for more riders to move up from silver to gold because of the cost savings from an operational stand point.”To accommodate the new venture, some changes to the competition calendar will also be announced shortly.“We are going to make a few subtle changes to the calendar that we’ve been working on for the last month, but, in general, it will be approximately the same dates,” said White. “We’ve reached out to Ten Sixty Stables about a date and they’ve moved around a little bit. We’ve also worked with Karen Sparks from Wesley Clover to solidify the calendar.”White has other initiatives planned for competitors including introducing Ontario Championships which will be a season finale to be held indoors just before The Royal Agricultural Winter Fair. Held over two weeks, one week for hunters and one for jumpers, the top 20 competitors in all divisions from the gold shows based on OHJA points will be invited to attend along with the gold, silver, and bronze medalists from the Silver Series Playoffs.“We can encourage the riders that excel at the silver level and to create that stepping stone opportunity for them to come up to the next level.”In addition to the new options for competitors, White also plans on expanding the atmosphere and services offered at Caledon Equestrian Park.“We are going to put an Angelstone touch in a few places,” commented White about his limited plans for changes in the first year. “After year one we want to stand back and learn and see what works and where we want to focus on improvements. A lot of the outdoor decisions will happen after the 2021 season and aim those towards 2022, whether that’s investing in the stabling or something else. There are a number of areas we want to address over the next couple of years. We’ll make those decisions following the 2021 outdoor season.”One area of priority is to invest in the indoor area by adding heat and indoor stalls to increase the total capacity to 243. This will help facilitate the new winter series he plans to run February through April. “We want to operate year-round rather than just being a seasonal business,” said White.Investing in these capital expenses, however, may depend on the fate of the lease of the facility. Currently, EMG has leased the facilities from the Town of Caledon which has not been transferred, as yet. EMG contributed $1.7 million as part of the investment in securing the 2015 Pan Am Games. This contribution represented the first 20 years of their rent payments of a 40-year lease which gives EMG the ability to host 18 equestrian events during the year.“At the moment we are working together with Craig to put on the events this year,” said White. “The lease hasn’t been transferred yet but we would like to in the near future. For now, we want to keep continuity and traditions and we’ll look at the lease down the road.”While White has succeeded in bringing back more fun to horse shows, he acknowledges that he has plenty to learn from the highly-regarded team at EMG.“We hope to retain as many EMG employees as possible to maintain continuity at the park. I want our team to learn from them so everything will stay fairly status quo.”Indeed EMG is well known for running a tight operation that runs as scheduled, and with staff that know which entries are qualified to enter various classes, neither of which have always been the case at Angelstone.A few years ago the Angelstone team recognized that there were limitations with what they could do with a single venue. The launch of the Major League Show Jumping series, which is currently the subject of a lawsuit, brought the issue to a head and they determined that the only viable option was to acquire another venue so that they could expand their services.“The same group that has owned and managed Angelstone for the last decade got together and looked to grow our company,” explained White. “We went to our bank, like every growing business, and showed some great progress and how we wanted to grow and put the deal together.”“The Silver Series has been our stepping stone that has allowed us to make this acquisition,” said White adding that a similar series will be introduced at Caledon Equestrian Park in 2021.“We are really trying to create a stepping stone in our industry that we haven’t really had. We haven’t had a big number of riders moving from the Trillium to A circuit. In most sports you have a feeder system and we’ve been missing that. The inception of the Silver Series in 2019 has really showed our group at Angelstone that there is an opportunity to get more than just the gold riders involved in what we are doing and it’s opened a ton of new opportunities and doors that I think our industry is going to thrive off of for the next two decades.”EMG was contacted for comment but was unable to reply before this story was published. Tags: Keean White, Caledon Equestrian Park, Equestrian Management Group, Craig Collins, show jumping, Town of Caledon, Angelstone Management, CEP, Email* Horse Sport Enews We’ll send you our regular newsletter and include you in our monthly giveaways. PLUS, you’ll receive our exclusive Rider Fitness digital edition with 15 exercises for more effective riding. Subscribe to the Horse Sport newsletter and get an exclusive bonus digital edition! More from News:MARS Bromont CCI Announces Requirements For US-Based RidersThe first set of requirements to allow American athletes and support teams to enter Canada for the June 2-6 competition have been released.Canadian Eventer Jessica Phoenix Reaches the 100 CCI4*-S MarkPhoenix achieved the milestone while riding Pavarotti at the inaugural 2021 CCI4*-S at the Land Rover Kentucky Three-Day Event.Tribunal Satisfied That Kocher Made Prolonged Use of Electric SpursAs well as horse abuse, the US rider is found to have brought the sport into disrepute and committed criminal acts under Swiss law.Washington International Horse Show Returns to TryonTIEC will again provide the venue for the WIHS Oct. 26-31 with a full schedule of hunter, jumper and equitation classes. SIGN UP
Posting DetailsPosting NumberF00218PClassification TitleFacultyPosition TypeDisclaimerLiberty University’s hiring practices and EEO Statement are fullyin compliance with both federal and state law. Federal law createsan exception to the “religion” component of the employmentdiscrimination laws for religious organizations (includingeducational institutions), and permits them to give employmentpreference to members of their own religion. Liberty University isin that category.Position TitleAssistant/Associate Professor of Accounting, ResidentDoes this position require driving?NoContactContact Phone ExtContact EmailJob Summary/Basic FunctionTeaching accounting coursework at the undergraduate and graduatelevel in the residential program. Liberty University School ofBusiness, is seeking a full-time (10 month) faculty inAccounting.Other duties will include student advising andassessment/accreditation committees.Liberty University is the largest private, nonprofit university inthe nation, the largest university in Virginia, and the largestChristian university in the world.Faculty are expected to agree with and live by the UniversityDoctrinal Statement http://www.liberty.edu/aboutliberty/index.cfm?PID =6907Minimum QualificationsMaster’s of Science in Accountancy or a related masters degree witha minimum of 18 graduate hours in accounting.Preferred QualificationsPhD in Accounting or related fieldCPA with experience in public of private accountingWork HoursVaries M-F.Posting Date03/02/2020Special Instructions for ApplicantsQuicklinkhttps://jobs.liberty.edu/postings/26533Applicant DocumentsRequired DocumentsResumeCover LetterTranscriptsLetter of RecommendationCurriculum VitaeTeaching PhilosophyPastoral Reference LetterAcademic/Professional Reference Letter 1Academic/Professional Reference Letter 2Optional DocumentsOther DocumentProfessional License(s)Career Advancement Form (For Current LU Employees ONLY)Supplemental QuestionsRequired fields are indicated with an asterisk (*).
Email [email protected] Press office Press mobile – out of hours only 07785 748787 The Commission has been engaging with the charity since August 2017 over serious concerns about adult safeguarding. Concerns escalated during this engagement, prompting the opening of a statutory inquiry on 8 November 2018.It is the Commission’s policy to publish a report at the conclusion of the case.Ends This Inquiry has now closed. Read the full Inquiry report for Rigpa Fellowship.,A trustee has been disqualified from all charities for a period of 8 years as a result of an ongoing Charity Commission inquiry into the Rigpa Fellowship charity.Patrick Gaffney was serving as a trustee of the charity, which is based in London and has objects to advance the Buddhist religion.Evidence uncovered by the Commission shows Mr Gaffney had knowledge of instances and allegations of improper acts and sexual and physical abuse against students at the charity.Mr Gaffney failed to take appropriate action in response to this information and is therefore responsible for misconduct and/or mismanagement in the administration of the charity.He was entered onto the list of disqualified trustees on 12 April 2019.Amy Spiller, Head of Investigations Team at the Charity Commission, said: We are continuing to investigate concerns about this charity via our ongoing statutory inquiry. However, the safety and wellbeing of beneficiaries and those that come into contact with the charity, must always be a priority for the trustees and staff of a charity. This trustee has been disqualified with immediate effect for failing in his duty to protect those who came into contact with the charity. The public rightly expect charities to be safe places, where people are free from harm. Where we find charities that are failing in this essential duty, we will take action to remove those responsible.
This note contains supplementary information on reasons for getting a coronavirus (COVID-19) test from a survey conducted at several regional and local testing sites in England between 1 and 4 September 2020.
Jim Quick, who will teach a beekeeping workshop in Griffin Sept. 20, has been dabbling in beekeeping for the past 32 years. The 43-year-old Pike County resident’s interest in bees started when he tagged along behind his beekeeping grandfather.A family tradition“He had bees, and he used to show me and my brother how to keep bees,” Quick said. “My grandfather helped me order my first bees from Sears and Roebuck. Back then, they came in 3 or 5 pound packages -– several bees per package and a queen came with every pack.”Beekeeping was easier “back then” because beekeepers didn’t have today’s pests and diseases to contend with, Quick said. “You just put the bees in a box and then come back and rob the honey once or twice a year,” he said. “There’s a lot more management involved now to keep the bees going strong.”Wiped out by pestsQuick speaks from first hand experience. In the early 1990s, he lost all his bees to varroa mites, a parasitic mite that attacks honeybees.“I got out of it for a little bit, but my grandfather came back and asked me to get one hive for his garden,” he said. “I ended up getting two, and now I have 60 to 70 hives.”Quick’s hives are spread out across Pike, Spalding, Lamar and Upson counties. He also rents a few bees to the Rock Ranch to pollinate their pick-your-own garden. “It’s still a hobby for me,” he said. “It’s a very time consuming hobby, but a hobby none-the-less. And it’s a sideline business, but I don’t make a killing by no means. If I tried to pay myself for my labor, I would definitely be losing money.”Can be a hobby or a businessQuick says the “money making part” of beekeeping comes from selling packages of bees and queens. “You have to have a lot larger scale than I have to do that, and your bees have to be inspected,” he said.He sells all of his Quick Bee Honey through word-of-mouth marketing. His wife Denise takes care of inventory, bookkeeping, “label making and jar washing.” His three boys tag along with their dad, but the eldest, 11-year-old J.T., seems to have the most interest for now.“The younger two get bored after about 15 minutes,” he said.Using his hobby at workA research technician in the entomology department at the University of Georgia campus in Griffin, Quick fields a lot of beekeeping questions. He also gives about 10 educational talks per year to civic and school groups.If beekeeping piques your interest, Quick doesn’t recommend ordering bees and trying to set up hives without first taking a course or two. “I don’t recommend anyone just buying bees and trying to get started,” he said. “People who want to have bees need to have a little experience on keeping the bees, or let a beekeeper like me help you.”Quick will be sharing his beekeeping knowledge and fielding questions on Sept. 20 at the Agroforestry and Wildlife Field Day. The event will take place on the UGA Griffin Campus Westbrook Farm off Ellis Road in Griffin, Ga. For more information on the field day, see the website www.caes.uga.edu/events/awfd/ or call (770) 229-3477.
WASHINGTON, Oct. 12, 2011 ‘ Saying US trade policy has been ‘a disaster’ for American workers, Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) said today he will vote against proposed trade agreements with South Korea, Panama and Colombia. Sanders said that the agreements are a continuation of trade pacts like the North America Free Trade Agreement and normalized trade with China which resulted in the loss of millions of jobs in America and the loss of thousands of factories in Vermont and across the country.‘Trade agreements like NAFTA and Permanent Normal Trade Relations with China have cost this country millions of good-paying jobs as companies shut down factories here and move to low-wage countries abroad,’ Sanders said in remarks prepared for a Senate floor speech.‘In the last 10 years alone we have lost 50,000 factories and it is harder and harder to buy products manufactured in the United States. These new trade agreements are nothing more than a continuation of a failed trade policy and should be rejected. Our demand must be that corporations reinvest in this country, create jobs here and not in China or other low-wage countries,’ he said.Sanders cited figures that showed that over the last decade, U.S. multi-national corporations slashed 2.9 million American jobs while creating 2.4 million jobs overseas.Congress should send a message to multi-national corporations that ‘they cannot keep sending America’s future overseas’ and that they may no longer sell out the American middle class.‘In the United States today, real unemployment is 16 percent, the middle class is collapsing and poverty is increasing,’ Sanders added. ‘One of the reasons is that we now have far fewer decent-paying manufacturing jobs that we used to. We need trade policies that protect the interests of American workers, and not just the CEOs of large corporations.’
If you have the choice between paying down a small amount of debt, or dealing with a more immediate bill, most of us would choose the latter. That’s how small debts become large debts, though.As personal finance site Fruclassity explains, most of us don’t usually want to deal with our growing debt until it becomes large enough to hurt us. After all, carrying a $1,000 credit card debt month to month costs less than a night out to eat each month in interest. Why drop $1,000 today if you can just pay the interest and deal with it later? This mindset is what leads to growing debt, however. Which means most people won’t deal with their debt until it hurts enough to wake them up:I don’t remember exactly what caused us to take an inward look at our financial selves; I only remember that we had recently charged nearly $5k onto a credit card for a new snowplow. Something in that purchase triggered us to look in the mirror at our financial selves, and we saw an impending train wreck. continue reading » 15SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr P2P payments are surging at a brisk 250% clip, but not all payment services are catching on yet, according to the annual App Store Research from Malauzai Software, a Finastra company.The Austin, Texas-based Malauzai, a digital banking provider for community financial institutions, released its monthly Monkey Insights “little-data” report, which highlights key trends in internet and mobile banking usage based on October 2018 data for 400+ banks and credit unions, covering 19.6 million logins from 980,000 active internet and mobile banking users.Robb Gaynor, general manager digital banking for Malauzai, analyzes the company’s monthly to ascertain the trends financial institutions might find beneficial and interesting. “It’s no surprise that payments, specifically P2P features continue to surge, although we’re still waiting for Zelle to take the industry by storm. It’s clear that this is not the preferred choice of community banks and credit unions.” He added business mobile is finally gaining some traction. “The industry has definitely made progress when compared to last year’s data; however, there is still a lot of work to be done to ensure these apps provide actual value to business owners.” continue reading »
The Department Chair for Biomedical Engineering, Kaiming Ye, has also started a different project. He has created a device that can sanitize N95 masks quickly and efficiently with the power of UV light. “It’s not something that’s happening 1000 miles away, it’s happening in our backyard. This is something very close to us, this is something which we think we can do for the local communities. This is what the university is about, we are in Binghamton, we want to help the locals,” said Ye. VESTAL (WBNG) — Professors at Binghamton University are working with local medical providers to 3D print masks, ventilator adapters, and more. Deng says he found 3D printing plans on YouTube and decided to get to work. Researchers have successfully printed several versions of ventilator adapters, which can be used on multiple patients at once and can be recycled. They have also printed N95 masks that can be reused by replacing a filter. “Our design for the ventilator has one inlet and four outlets,” said Binghamton University Assistant Professor Jia Deng. After the prototype is complete, it will head over to UHS for testing. For professors, these projects are a chance to make a difference that could save lives. “We want to make sure the light can penetrate inside to the mask, not only to kill on the surface, but also inside it,” said Ye. Binghamton University says they have donated 4,000 N95 masks, 15,000 earloop masks, and 6,000 medical gowns to local medical providers. “Hopefully we don’t use it, but in emergency needs, we need adapters so that one ventilator can be used for multiple patients,” said Deng. The creation of these projects comes after a medical supply shortage due to the increasing positive cases of COVID-19.
Cell culture is a known technology that is used for vaccines such as inactivated polio vaccine, but in the United States it has never been applied to flu. Moving flu vaccine production from eggs to cell culture would simplify manufacturing in several key areas. It would free manufacturers from the necessity of procuring enough eggs up to a year in advance. By dispensing with eggs, it would eliminate the need for putting a pandemic virus through reverse genetics, shaving 4 to 6 weeks off vaccine production. And because the vaccine virus is grown in giant industrial fermenters, it could offer a vast increase in production capacitybut only if manufacturers or governments make significant capital investments (see Bibliography: GlaxoSmithKline 2005, Novartis 2006) or manufacturers quickly convert the 2.5 million liters of cell-culture capacity (see Bibliography: FDA 2007: Committee meeting transcript) in use around the world for other pharmaceutical products. Either method of creating additional capacity would require the approval of regulatory bodies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before production could begin, unless governments enacted some form of emergency release. Nov 1, 2007 (CIDRAP News) Frustration with the slow pace of pandemic-vaccine achievement has spurred second looks at both old and new technologies, such as using whole influenza viruses instead of fragments or growing flu viruses in cultures of mammalian cells instead of in eggs. The pandemic vaccine puzzle Pros and cons of live vaccinesLive-attenuated vaccine has been the Cinderella of the seasonal flu vaccine world, struggling for market share since it was introduced in 2003 by MedImmune (now part of AstraZeneca). Even during flu-shot shortages, its acceptability was hampered by restrictive FDA indications limiting its use to 5- to 49-year-olds, as well as a formula that required physicians to keep it frozen (see Bibliography: Rosenwald 2007). The vaccine was relaunched this year with a new formula that requires only refrigeration, along with a broadened indication permitting use in children as young as 2 years old, backed by research showing that it protected young children better than a shot (see Bibliography: Belshe 2007). But additional investment at least is beginning: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awarded $97 million to one manufacturer in 2005 and just over $1 billion to five manufacturers in 2006 (see Bibliography: HHS 2006), and manufacturers Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline have both begun building cell-culture plants in the United States. The first cell-culture vaccine for seasonal flu, made by Novartis, was approved by European Union authorities in June (see Bibliography: Novartis 2007: Novartis gains European approval). Part 1: Flu research: a legacy of neglectPart 2: Vaccine production capacity falls far shortPart 3: H5N1 poses major immunologic challengesPart 4: The promise and problems of adjuvantsPart 5: What role for prepandemic vaccination?Part 6: Looking to novel vaccine technologiesPart 7: Time for a vaccine ‘Manhattan Project’?Bibliography “Although such an event may not be of concern in the face of widespread disease from a pandemic strain of influenza, it would clearly be an unfavorable outcome if the threatened pandemic did not materialize,” Catherine Luke and Kanta Subbarao of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) wrote last year. They called for clinical trials of live-attenuated pandemic vaccine candidates in which, to eliminate the risk of reassortment, participants would be kept in inpatient isolation. “The risk for reassortment must be carefully considered by public health authorities before a decision is made to introduce a live, attenuated vaccine in a threatened pandemic,” they stated (see Bibliography: Luke 2006). Editor’s note: This is the sixth in a seven-part series investigating the prospects for development of vaccines to head off the threat of an influenza pandemic posed by the H5N1 avian influenza virus. The series puts promising advances in vaccine technology in perspective by illuminating the formidable barriers to producing large amounts of an effective and widely usable vaccine in a short time. Part 5 looked at the idea of vaccinating people before a pandemic with a best-guess vaccine and following up later with a vaccine matched to the emergent pandemic strain. Among older and known technologies, the lure of cross-reactive protection has spurred a second look at inactivated whole-virus and live-attenuated flu vaccines. Some whole-virus trials have returned encouraging results. But in the past, whole-virus vaccines’ much higher rate of adverse reactions has kept them out of commercial use in the United States. As a result, “if whole-virus vaccines are confirmed to be more immunogenic than subvirion vaccines, this will pose challenges to manufacturers and regulators, since it will require substantial changes to existing licensed production processes,” Iain Stephenson of University Hospital-Leicester and colleagues observed in Lancet Infectious Diseases (see Bibliography: Stephenson 2006: Development of vaccines against influenza H5). The promise of cell-culture productionThe simplest but in some ways most challenging proposals for addressing the slow development of pandemic vaccines are ones that directly address the shortfall in flu antigen by radically changing production techniques. Such approaches may yield cross-protection against various H5N1 strains, shorten the production timeline, or increase the amount of vaccine that can be produced. As with the inactivated subvirion or split-virus vaccines, however, much of the research into new types of vaccines and forms of delivery is in its early stages, and the vaccines could be years away from marketability. Few of them pass the real-world tests specified recently by David Fedson, MD, in the Permanente Journal. Fedson, a retired vaccine-industry executive who has analyzed pandemic vaccine planning, wrote that the vaccines must be “scientifically promising,” they must be “licensed or near licensure,” and “the global industrial capacity to produce them must be large and already in place” (see Bibliography: Fedson 2007: New approaches). Alternate routesSome researchers have urged attention not to new vaccines, but to new methods of administering vaccines. Intradermal vaccination appears to provoke acceptable levels of immunity while using only 20% to 30% of the standard intramuscular dosebut the injection technique is more challenging and may not be feasible for mass vaccination programs that might use less-trained volunteers (see Bibliography: Haaheim 2007). A refinement of the cell-culture strategy involves isolating the flu virus’s hemagglutinin gene and using recombinant technology to express the hemagglutinin in insect cells grown in bioreactors. The main commercial proponent of this process, Protein Sciences Corp., claims it can halve the standard production timeline while delivering higher yields (see Bibliography: Lauerman 2007). The baculovirus-expressed recombinant product has been successfully tested for safety and immunogenicity (see Bibliography: Treanor, Schiff 2006; Treanor, Schiff 2007), and the company has said it plans to submit a trivalent, seasonal-flu version of the vaccine to the FDA for licensure before the end of 2007 (see Bibliography: Protein Sciences Corp. 2007). Submission of a recombinant pandemic vaccine would follow approval of the seasonal vaccine, chief operating officer Manon Cox said at an FDA hearing earlier this year (see Bibliography: FDA 2007: Committee meeting transcript). In another novel suggestion, academics from the University of Hong Kong recommended recently that health authorities consider giving lower-than-planned doses of vaccine during a pandemic, arguing that vaccinating more people with a reduced dose could create a mass effect large enough to slow down spread of the disease (see Bibliography: Riley 2007). That approach too has drawbacks, Christophe Fraser of Imperial College London said in a commentary: “We must . . . consider whether anyone is ready for the potential consequences of deploying a suboptimal vaccine in an uncertain attempt to maximize our herd protection, with a possible reduction in the extent of protection of individuals” (see Bibliography: Fraser 2007). The Holy GrailThe Holy Grail of flu vaccineand the object so far of the greatest wistfulnessis a universal vaccine. “The optimal long-term solution to pandemic vaccination is the development of a new influenza vaccine against an antigen that is present in all influenza subtypes and does not change,” Ben Schwartz and Bruce Gellin of HHS’s National Vaccine Program Office wrote in 2005 (see Bibliography: Schwartz 2005). So far, however, vaccines based on conserved regions of the virus such as the M2 protein have shown only the ability to reduce disease, not to prevent infection, and have been tested largely in animals, though one clinical trial in humans began last summer (see Bibliography: Acambis PLC 2007). Because they contain live virus, live-attenuated vaccines provoke multiple types of immunity. In studies they have been shown to protect against both the strains from which vaccine candidates were derived and against drifted (slightly mutated) strains as wellcharacteristics that make them highly appealing to pandemic planners (see Bibliography: Belshe 2004). They also grow in eggs at a much higher volume than inactivated vaccines (see Bibliography: Monto 2007). But their live-virus content is responsible for the vaccines’ greatest potential danger: the possibility that they might lead to reassortment between the vaccine virus and circulating flu strains.